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How do Self-Driving Cars See?

Computer Vision for Object Detection

Self-driving cars are the future.
We will essentially be able to do whatever we want on a car, be it having a nap, reading the news or having a video chat with friends. The car does all the driving for us , allowing us to save time on the road.

Self-driving cars will also save lives. Over 33,000 Americans are killed in car accidents each year. Implementing autonomous vehicles will allow for accurate and safer transportation, mitigating these needless deaths.

So how have cars come so far in this amazing technological field? And how far do they have left to go? That’s what I’ll be covering in the next few articles.

Perception

An autonomous vehicle needs sensory input devices like cameras, radar and lasers to allow the car to perceive the world around it, creating a digital map. We’ll be focusing on the imaging where cars perform object detection. Here’s an example: How in the world do cars do this? Using computer vision, a field of machine learning and AI !

Image Classification

Object detection is actually a two-part process, image classification and then image localization. Image classification is determining what the objects in the image are, like a car or a person, while image localization is providing the specific location of these objects, as seen by the bounding boxes above.

To perform image classification, a convolutional neural network is trained to recognize various objects, like traffic lights and pedestrians. A convolutional neural network performs convolution operations on images in order to classify them. Check out my other article to learn how to build a CNN of your own! Convolutional Neural Network However, such CNNs can usually only classify images with a single object that take up a sizable portion of it. To solve this problem, we can use sliding windows!

As we slide the window over the image, we take the resulting image patch and run it through the convolutional neural network to see if it corresponds to any possible object. If it’s just an image of the road or the sky, it would be a false prediction. If it’s an image of a car or a person, it would return as a true prediction. But what if there’s an object a lot larger or smaller than the window size? It wouldn’t be detected! So, we’ll have to use multiple window sizes and slide them over the image.

Since this can be very computationally expensive and take lots of time, we’ll introduce another algorithm: YOLO.

And no, it doesn’t stand for you only live once, it’s you only look once since the image is only run through the CNN once ! For YOLO, we split up an image up into a grid and run the entire image through a convolutional neural network.

We end up with a class probability map, which gives us the probabilities for each grid cell being a specific object. YOLO works because it returns the predictions of small portions of the entire image so it doesn’t need multiple window sizes and run-throughs.

Object Localization

Now that we know what each grid cell contains (or if it doesn’t contain anything), how do we determine precisely where each object is using bounding boxes?

We use an algorithm called non-max suppression . While training the network, we compare our bounding box results from the CNN to the actual bounding box. Our cost function is the area of intersection divided by the area of union of the two bounding boxes. The closer this number, also called IoU (intersection over union), is to 1, the better our prediction is.

After training our network to predict the bounding boxes across our training set and as we start to test it, we must also take into consideration that parts of the same object may be in multiple grid cells, resulting in multiple bounding boxes. This calls for non-max suppression.

In non-max suppression, we first discard the bounding boxes from the grid cells that have a probability for the object being present below a certain threshold, usually 0.5 or 0.6. We then take the box with the highest prediction value and discard or suppress the boxes which have an IoU of greater than another threshold with that box, which also conveniently usually 0.5 or 0.6.

It’s easy to see why it’s called the non-max suppression algorithm, we take the boxes that don’t have the maximum probability and suppress them!

After performing object detection and localization, we obtain our result!

Cars can use YOLO or other algorithms to detect objects in its surroundings and make decisions based on what it sees. They will be able to “see” humans, other cars, traffic lights, and everything else in order to decide whether to go, stop, or turn. Using object detection, cars will be able to see the world just like humans can.

But how’s it holding back self-driving cars?

Next Steps in Object Detection

First off, cars have to perform object detection in real-time in order to detect objects approaching quickly and avoid them. There must be a very low latency time for high accuracy, meaning that very high computing and graphical power is needed. We’ll need to improve the power of our processor units in order to implement computer vision safely for autonomous vehicles.

However, we also need a very accurate model upwards of 99.9%, since any mistakes made can be disastrous and cost human lives. Our current models have not achieved such high accuracies yet and we must generate more data to train on or design even better models. There are other better models for object detection like R-FCNs and SSDs but are still far from the accuracy we need. If we can improve object detection greatly, we’ll be one step closer to self-driving cars, and a safer and more convenient future .

Cars need object detection to perceive its surroundings

Object detection = object classification + object localization

The YOLO algorithm only needs to run the entire image once through the CNN once, while the sliding window algorithm is much more computationally expensive

Non-max suppression is used to figure out which bounding box to use

We’re still far from being perfect object detection but we’ll all be working hard to get there!

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